Saturday, December 4, 2010

Handicrafts in Nepal

Term Paper
Handicraft Industry in Nepal

Industrial Social Work

Submitted by:
Bikina Chhetri
submitted to
Kesh Malla
6th Semester

Date: 1st October, 2010

Handicrafts are unique expressions that represent a culture, tradition and the heritage of a country. Nepal is well known for its exotic Handicrafts legacy and tradition. A wide range of Nepalese Handicrafts represents the diversity of Handicrafts Tradition in Nepal. Handicraft is an artwork that needs tremendous artistic skills and creative mastery. Variety of designs and finishes are available in Nepalese market that reflects excellent artistic skills of craftsmen.
Handicraft, also known as craft work or simply craft, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or using only simple tools. Usually the term is applied to traditional means of making goods. The individual artisanship of the items is a paramount criterion; such items often have cultural and/or religious significance.
Handicrafts were the predominant form of production until the appearance of large-scale machine industry, with which they coexist, although they have lost much of their former importance. The characteristics of handicrafts are the use of simple implements of labor; the decisive importance of the artisan’s skill, which makes possible the production of high-quality, artistic goods; and small-scale production, in which the artisan works alone or with an extremely limited number of assistants.
Often, the concept of handicrafts does not include domestic handicrafts, which are designated by some other term. For example, peasant domestic handicrafts may be known as domestic industry. Sometimes, only commissioned handicrafts are included in the concept of handicrafts, and handicrafts for market are referred to as cottage industry. The term “handicrafts” sometimes designates commissioned work and marketed work only at the stage when artisans are small-scale, economically independent producers who personally own the means of production.

Nepalese Handicrafts can be categorized into two major divisions:
Products such as metal statues, ethnic costumes, traditional silver jewellery, wood carving, religious and ritual objects like bells, vajra, stone sculpture, metal utensil, paubha painting, ceramics, Handmade Paper, Hand Knitwear, filigree, Bell, Vajra products are traditional Nepalese crafts.
Products like home furnishing material, floor covering, modern painting, patina products, puzzle toys, macramé (knot crafts), pashmina, leather products, modern silver jewellery gift ware, decorative items, dolls & puppets, crazy hats, batik, bead crafts, bone & horn products, natural buttons, felt craft etc. are some of the modern forms of Nepalese handicrafts.
Handicrafts emerge with the rise of human productive activity. Developing along with technology under different social formations, handicrafts assume various forms. In conformity with the stages of the social division of labor, they are usually subdivided into domestic handicrafts, commissioned (made-to-order) handicrafts, and handicrafts produced for the market. Domestic handicrafts, the earliest form, prevail before handicrafts develop into an independent sector of the economy. Produced by the members of a household to satisfy their own needs, they are an inseparable part of the subsistence economy.
Nepalese handicraft history can be traced back to the Stone Age when human beings were inadequate of tools of any kind. The history of artistic handicrafts only began during the 5th Century A.D., when different religions began to form their bases among the people of Nepal. Hence we see a lot of religious influence on Nepalese handicrafts. Introduced by the Nordic Aryans, mixed with different groups of Mongolians, nurtured by Buddhist and Hindu concepts adapted the taste of market. The historical development of Nepalese handicraft industry is very old although has its rise and falls.
According to the reference found in Kautilya's Economics about various productions and exports from Nepal, during the time of Chandra Gupta Mouriya, in fourth century, Nepal was known for quality rainproof woollen blankets. The blankets were made of eight pieces joined together of black colour known as "bhiringisi" as well as "apasaraka". Similarly the good quality blankets are mentioned in the epics of Jain religion "Brihatakalpasutra Vhashya". Various famous Chinese travellers like Wanghunshe and Huansang in 648 A.D. have appreciated Nepalese arts and crafts and the skills of Nepalese craftsmen and artisans in their travelogues.
From the beginning up to the mid-nineteenth century, the rulers of the country promoted national industries and trade to various measures of production, promotion and encouragement. Saving national industry only imported commodities which were not produced locally. Towards the end of the nineteenth century Nepalese arts and crafts industry and the entire home based industries in general suffered a lot due to the general liberal import policy of the government. Prior to the establishment of British regime over India and entering a peace treaty with Tibet in 1904 A.D. Nepal was interpreted as the main route to Tibet for external trade with other countries. But the treaty of 1904 A.D. facilitated the British to open a new route between India and Tibet through Chumbic Valley and the trade route treaty of 1923 A.D. between Nepal and British India, which was not in favour of Nepal and had very unfavourable effects both on industries and on flourishing trade of the country.
In Nepal, the production of handicraft is an age-old practise. Novel handicraft is also developed in harmony with changing market taste. For the last 25–30 years, export of handicrafts has been growing. The development of handicraft helps the conservation of national heritage and culture of country; which in return contributes to appease poverty by creating job opportunities. The handicrafts of Nepal is produced in a traditional way, from generations to generations leading the footpath of ancestors or from forefather to grandfather to father and to son and this continuity has given the survival to Nepalese handicrafts, preserving their heritage, cultural values, aspects and tradition. More recently, these arts and crafts is one of the major exporting industry of Nepal, earning foreign exchange and providing employment to thousands of Nepalese craftsmen, artisans, promoters and businessmen generating revenue to government. There are many online websites on Nepalese handicrafts, which are used by international customers for ordering products.

Importance to the Development and Economy:
Handicrafts have remained stronger in economically underdeveloped countries, where they still account for a significant percentage of the output. Even in these countries, however, handicrafts are giving way to factory industry. Handicrafts have both cultural and economic importance for any country. Handicrafts are the potential medium to preserve the rich traditional art, heritage & culture, traditional skills & talents. On other side handicrafts play significant role for economic development in Nepal and provides ample opportunities for employment and boosts the tourism industry.
Handicrafts in Nepal are associated with different festivals, rituals, religion and beliefs as there is diversified culture and tradition all over the Himalayan kingdom, like Mandla Art, Buddha jayanti, Christmas Decorative, Buddhist Sculptures, Sculptures of Hindu Deities, and Mithila arts from Janakpur.

There is a huge demand for Nepalese handicrafts products in both domestic and international market. Major part of Handicrafts Industry is dominated by small & medium scale enterprises. To deliver quality products & match the demand & supply there is need of greater technological support & innovativeness in industry. Handicrafts are an integral part of Nepalese Culture and will continue to play a major role in the Cultural and Economic well being of Nepal.

Rs. Mn
(hand knotted woolwn) 3701.99
Readymade garments 1343.57
Jute & jute products 1343.57
Hides and skins 277.70
Pulses 241.67
Vegetable oils 215.00
Oil cake 87.50
Niger seeds 86.50
Catechu 76.65
Ginger 61.40
Handicrafts 49.18
Silverware and jewellery 44.67
(source: ministry of industry of Nepal)

The above given result shows that handicraft also plays a significance role for the economic development of the country. Not only has this but it also helps in utilization of raw materials and creating employment opportunities for the people. So, it can be termed as one of the vital area to work for increasing the GDP.
Federation of Handicraft Association of Nepal:
Federation of Handicraft Associations of Nepal was established in 1972 to enhance and promote handicraft trade and industry. Originally, its name was Handicraft Association of Nepal (HAN). It is registered under Institution Registration Act of Nepal. It is a service oriented non-profit organization of private sector business and artisan community. It helps its members to improve their productivity, explore markets and introduce them to the international arena. It also works as liaison between its members and the Government and Non-Government Organizations.
The Government of Nepal has not specified a typical policy for handicraft. The handicraft has been included inside the industry policy while there is a Federation of Handicraft Association of Nepal which works hand in hand with government and has developed some functions for handicraft which are:
1. Organize seminars, symposiums and conferences on various topics relevant to strengthening the handicraft trade & industry.

2. Organize exhibition and trade fairs to highlight handicraft products & create public awareness in its usage.

3. Activate and increase contacts with National and International Agencies for the growth of handicraft trade & industry.

4. Explore additional markets for the handicraft products.

5. Institute award in recognition of highest export and best craftsmanship.

6. Arrange participation in international trade fairs & exhibitions for its members.

7. Publication of news bulletins, books, catalogues, members’ directory and other materials relevant to promote handicraft trade & industry.

8. Act as catalytic agent for management of training programmes for the benefit of its members.

9. Documentation & dissemination of information regarding handicraft trade & industry.
The market of handicraft is increasing day by day. Now a day’s people are showing their interest in handicrafts as it looks beautiful, attractive and primitive. In my view it is important to understand the present state of craft trade and the experience of the people who produce and sell crafts.
The quantity of each handicrafts product at the outlets is generally small due to which the people involve in this business are not able to gain attention from the government. A major problem in supplying the retail outlets is that they order very small quantities. Due to the small scale of their business, they might keep products on consignments and pay groups for what they sales and return what does not sell.
Craft groups are rapidly loosing ground due to some reasons like most of artisans do not get to hear about the schemes made for them. Even if they hear also, they don’t seem to be getting more benefits as they are unable to compete in larger urban market, both domestic and international. At the producers’ and financial constraints, lack of raw materials, changes in market trends are the problem that has to be tackling in this business.
On the other hand Government of Nepal is also not much interested in handicrafts as it has not declared any policy for handicrafts. But somehow many NGO and other small scale industry have given it some priority and have been working accordingly. May be this will help the government to realize the importance of handicraft in future and give special priority towards it as a means of economic development of the country.


Juvenile Justice in Nepal

Term Paper


Social Context of Children in Nepal

Juvenile Justice

Submitted to: Submitted by:

Dr. Bala Raju Nikku Bidhya Joshi

Kadambari Memorial College Bikina Chhetri

Date: 21st November, 2010

Juvenile Justice:
Juvenile justice is the area of criminal law applicable to persons not old enough to be held responsible for criminal acts. In most states, juvenile justice law is applicable to those under 18 years old. Juvenile law is mainly governed by the juvenile justice codes of states. The main goal of the juvenile justice system is rehabilitation rather than punishment.
Juvenile justice is administered through a juvenile or family court, however, but juvenile court does not have jurisdiction in cases in which minors are charged as adults. Where parental neglect or loss of control is a problem, the juvenile court may seek out foster homes for the juvenile, treating the child as a ward of the court.
The Federal Juvenile Delinquency Act defines juvenile delinquency (any act that is otherwise a crime, but is committed by someone less than 18 years of age) and sets forth rules by which state laws must comply with regard to juvenile court procedures and punishments. The purpose of the act is to assist states and local communities with funding and standards to be used in providing community based preventative services to youths in danger of becoming delinquent, training individuals in occupations providing such services, and providing technical assistance in the field. (US Legal)

Juvenile Justice in Nepal:

Nepal is the state party to the CRC (Child Right Convention) and a majority of other international and regional human rights instruments that protects the rights of the child in general and the rights of the child in conflict with the law in particular. The children act 1992 of Nepal is a legal framework introduced by the state after the ratification of CRC in 1990 as a state parties of CRC are obliged to fulfill its responsibilities towards the protection of the rights of the child.

Nepal has almost ratified most of the major international human rights instruments including convention on the rights of the child (CRC) 1989. Enactment of children’s act, 1992 can be conceived as an initiative of the government towards framing legal standards for children as a separate mechanism. Similarly, court rules also deals with some issues relating to children. Recently enacted juvenile justice (procedure) rules, 2007 is a step towards juvenile justice system in the country. Crime commited by an adult and child are seen with the same perspectives. There is no separate justice system to deal with the case of juveniles and adults except for differences in punishment based on legally acknowledged differences in criminal liability.(PPR Nepal, 2007)

Nepal doesn’t currently have a comprehensive juvenile justice system. Although children act was introduced in 1992 to govern procedures for dealing with the children in conflict wit the law and children in need of protection, the implementation of the law has been fragmented. Children are not systematically separated from adults at all stages of the criminal proceedings and juvenile justice is not yet treated as a fully separate and independent system. (UNICEF, 2006)

The children act is not clear whether a child may be sent to a prison to undergo punishment and be kept in police custody during trial. The government of Nepal while prescribing the juvenile bench has not accomplished its responsibility to nominate the social worker and child specialist in audition to the judge. (CeLRRD, 2003)

• The minimum age of criminal responsibility in Nepal is 10. The UN committee on the rights of child has expressed concerned that this age is too low and has recommended raising it to comply with international standards i.e. 18 years.

• Police are prohibited from using handcuffs, fetters in the arrest of the child and interrogations must be conducted in the presence of the public prosecutor or government attorney. In practice however these safeguards are not consistently respected and the investigation systems are not child friendly.

• The government of Nepal has established only one correctional home which is located in Kathmandu valley.

Status of Children in Nepal:
The population of children (below 18 years of age) is 12.2 million - around 48% of total population. Every week, 2000 children or every day 191 children lose their lives due to the country's indifference towards them. The under-five mortality rate is 59 out of every 1000 live births. Out of 3.6 million children under five years of age, 62% do not have access to basic health services. Every year 50,000 children die of preventable diseases. 39% children do not get to finish primary education. 2.6 million Children are working as child labourers in order to make out a living. Among them, 127,000 children's lives are in danger. Child marriage before the age of eighteen is at 51%. Every year, 12,000 children and women are trafficked in Nepal. Among them, 20% of children are below 16 years of age. Children are trafficked for domestic work, carpet weaving, circus, forced marriage and prostitution. (World Vision International Nepal, 2009)
Fig.2: Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2006

Demographic Indicators to the top

Population (thousands), 2008, under 18 12666
Population (thousands), 2008, under 5 3535
Population annual growth rate (%), 1970–1990 2.4
Population annual growth rate (%), 1990–2000 2.5
Population annual growth rate (%), 2000–2008 2.1
Crude death rate, 1970 21
Crude death rate, 1990 13
Crude death rate, 2008 6
Crude birth rate, 1970 44
Crude birth rate, 1990 39
Crude birth rate, 2008 25
Life expectancy, 1970 43
Life expectancy, 1990 54
Life expectancy, 2008 67
Total fertility rate, 2008 2.9
% of population urbanized, 2008 17
Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 1970–1990 6.4
Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 1990–2000 6.6
Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 2000–2008 5.2
Fig 1: Unicef Nepal (Updated on March 2nd 2010)


We recognize that the children of Nepal are vulnerable to many problems. Many of them are already victims of these problems. Some of these problems are as follows:-

Because of poverty of their families, children are deprived of sufficient food, proper nutrition, adequate shelter, minimum education and basic health services, and many other things that children deserve.

Poor infrastructure & systems:
Lack of schools and teachers for children, resulting in children not having access to quality education. Lack of children’s hospitals and doctors specializing in child care & diseases, resulting in children not having access to the medical care they need. Lack of sanitation and safe drinking water, resulting in many children falling sick and dying of communicable diseases. Lack of judicial and penal systems that cater to the special situation of the child, resulting in children being subject to adult laws and being put in jails with adult inmates. Lack of systems providing for the care of babies and children of mothers who are incarcerated in jails, resulting in babies and children growing up in jails, and/or children left to fend for themselves when their mothers are taken away from them. Owing to lack of childcare centers, children whose parents have to go out to work are left alone by themselves and sometimes even tied up by their parents to prevent them from leaving the house or preventing them from getting into hazardous situations. Due to the lack of proper training for the teachers the students are loaded with studies and homework. As a result children lack proper environment to learn in a healthy and enjoyable way. Many children homes are not well organized or run as a result children do not get proper care and love.

Caste system:
Due to the caste system in villages, low caste children are often deprived of participating in various development activities together with children from high caste.

Exploitative child labor:
Many children are subject to exploitative and/or bonded labor in many industries in Nepal. These industries include (but are not limited to) factories and carpet industries, agricultural farms, tea gardens, transportation industry, hotels and restaurants including domestic helpers. In spite of the hard work they have to do, they are paid very low wages or no wages at all. Children in some backward communities are even bound to slavery to pay off the debts of their parents.

Street children:
Thousands of children are estimated to live on the streets without proper shelter. Due to family disintegration, poverty, illiteracy, domestic violence, lack of proper parenting skills, attractions of city life, persecution from the Maoist insurgents and/or the government forces, or other reasons, many children from rural areas are migrating in the cities. Whatever the reason for their migration, all the children meet the same fate in one way or another when they reach the city. They become deprived of shelter, food, education, security and all other basic needs that are essential for their physical, mental, and other areas of development. Most of them are living by scavenging in the streets, indulging in drugs and alcohol abuse and are subject to sexual abuse. The plight of street children can be seen in the crowded streets of Kathmandu and other major cities of the country.

War victims:
In many ways, children have been adversely affected by the armed conflict in Nepal. They and/or their parents have been killed or disabled. They have been psychologically traumatized. Their education has been interrupted. They have been displaced from their home towns. Their physical development has been affected by the lack of nutrition as a direct result of the war. A number of children have even been forced to become child soldiers. In the 12-year-long armed conflict, 475 children died due to internal armed conflict. Among them 205 were girl children. In the course of armed conflict many incidences of sexual abuse of girls have been made public. Similarly, many children including girls have been displaced to city areas and are involved in exploitative labor sectors. (CWIN 2007)
Drug and Alcohol abuse:
Many children are drug abusers and/or frequently consume alcohol. This leads to deterioration in their physical and mental development, and to their being vulnerable to exploitation by drug pushers and other persons who prey on their need for drug and alcohol supplies. Many times they are involved in gang fighting and giving trouble to society. Their families and society do not behave and treat well to the drug abusers.

Disease & HIV/AIDS infections:
Every year many children die due to lack of immunization, preventable and communicable diseases, and nutrition related diseases. The examples are acute respiratory illnesses including TB, diarrhea, malnutrition and malaria, HIV AIDS.

Many children are suffering from disability like speaking and hearing disability, mobility disability, disability due to accidents, mental disability. The disabled are looked upon as a burden for society and are stigmatized. There are cases of many families hiding disabilities because of the stigma, instead of seeking help. Due to poverty and lack of awareness, they are not properly diagnosed, treated or rehabilitated.

A significant number of children die every year due to malnutrition. The main cause is food deficiency and lack of knowledge about nutritional and balanced diet. Girl children are given less food and less nutritionally-balanced diets. Malnutrition during childhood adversely affects children throughout the rest of their lives.

Forced marriage:
Many children are forced into marriages and have children at a very early age. As a result they lose their childhood and have to undertake a lot of responsibilities while they are still immature in many ways. Many young mothers die due to birth related complications and many suffer from anemia.

Orphans / children with single parent:
Poverty, war, disease and other factors have resulted in the early deaths of many children’s parents, resulting the children being orphaned. They are deprived of proper food, shelter, education, health care and many other things. They have problems getting citizenship certificates as well as parental property. The orphans have problem of socialization. Their behavior and personality are often found different from children having parents.

Abortion is legal in Nepal, resulting in the killing of many unborn children for reasons like being of the wrong sex or unwanted pregnancy.

Family disintegration:
Families in Nepal are disintegrating – parents are separating or divorcing, resulting in one-parent families that are usually not as capable of protecting and nurturing children as well as two-parent families, owing to the fact that the single parent often has to leave the child alone in order to find work. They are deprived of getting citizenship certificates and also their parental property. Many children staying in the family having stepmother or stepfather are abused and ill-treated in many ways.

Owing to the poor status of children in Nepali society, children are often neglected, in that they are not given the adequate nutrition, love, care, protection, education, medical access, and other help that they need to grow into adults who are adequately developed in all areas. Owing to gender discrimination, girl children are often times more neglected than boy children. Parents who are mentally ill, alcoholic or drug abusers often neglect their children in many ways.

Sexual exploitation and trafficking:
Many children are subjected to sexual abuse even in their own homes, and many are sold by their own parents or relatives into the sex trade to earn money for the family. A trend of Dewaki in some communities of the far western region in Nepal results in girls being offered in the temple for the priest’s sexual use. A number of children are taken into other countries to serve in the sex trade.

Other trafficking:
Many children are trafficked for non-sexual purposes, for example, to work as beggars, slave laborers, agricultural workers, and domestic workers or as circus workers in different cities in India. Some children are even said to be trafficked for their body parts to be used in transplants.
Role of social worker:
Social workers has been appointed in juvenile bench but still they are not able to handle and make their presence in all cases. They are not given effective roles as a social worker. They have low decision making power and are only supposed to prepare a report. But, inspite of all these if they are given more decision making power then they can play effective role and can be a change agent from the starting. Social worker can also play the role of analyzer, researcher, advocate, psychologist and fact finder. They also helps in care and protection of children in conflict with law.

Dharmendra Barai was 16 years old and was a seventh grader at Gargatti High School, Gonaha VDC-8, Rupendehi, close to where he lived (more details can be found in the letter below). According to the information from Advocacy Forum, an NGO, the boy was arrested by the police at around 12.30pm on 3 July 2010 regarding his alleged involvement in a bicycle collision in which a man had died a day earlier. We are told that police had already arrested and interrogated Dharmendra’s elder brother Mahendra Barai that morning. ASI Nar Bahadur Khatri, in charge of Khajuriya Police Post, and two plain clothed policemen were present at Dharmendra’s arrest, and various local villagers witnessed it. He was taken to Khajuriya Police Office and kept in a detention cell along with a Parsuram Pasi, who had been arrested at 10am that day regarding the same incident. According to Parsuram Pasi, that evening the police took Dharmendra to a separate room for about one hour, but it is unknown what happened during this time.

Later that evening 20 to 25 villagers - including members of Dharmendra's family - visited the police office to ask for his release, stressing that he was firstly a minor, and secondly, had not committed a crime. They were able to visit Dharmendra, who was in tears, and who told them that the police had aimed their rifles at him and threatened to shoot him. An ASI Nar Bahadur Khatri reportedly announced that the boy would be released at 8am the next day and told the visitors to return then; they left at around 10.30pm. We are unable to determine what happened to the boy after this. However shortly after midnight, and after the evening meal, Dharmendra asked to be brought out from the cell claiming that he was dizzy, had a headache and felt that he might die; Parsuram also reports feeling that he might lose consciousness. After some time one hour ASI Kahtri allowed the boy out of the cell, who reportedly fell to the ground, frothing from the mouth. The two detainees were taken from the station to Bhim Hospital Bhairahawa at around 1am.

At around 4am ASI Khatri called Dharmendra's family to tell them that he had been admitted to the Bhim Hospital in Bhairahawahospital. On arrival shortly after they found that the boy was already dead. The hospital records read ‘Brought Dead’, and also note that the body had an abrasion on left palm, bruising on his right sole and a two to three inch wound on his right arm, which have as yet been unexplained. His family fears that he was tortured.
An article written on November 18, 2008 by Bede Sheppard, Asia researcher for the Children’s Rights Division
(New York) – The Nepali government should urgently address the widespread torture and ill-treatment of children in police custody, Human Rights Watch said today in a statement marking Nepali Children’s Day on November 20. So far in 2008, Human Rights Watch has received credible claims of more than 200 cases of torture or abuse committed by members of the Nepali police against boys and girls, some as young as 13.
“The Nepali police have a duty to protect children and to prevent crime,” said Bede Sheppard, Asia researcher for Human Rights Watch’s Children’s Rights Division. “Instead, by torturing children in custody they are committing crimes against those they are supposed to be protecting.”
According to a large number of consistent and reliable reports, including first-person testimony from children, the most common methods of torture police use on children include: kicking; fist blows to the body; inserting metal nails under children’s toenails; and hitting the soles of feet, thighs, upper arms, backs of hands, and the back with bamboo sticks and plastic pipes.
Most children abused by the police are suspected of committing petty crimes, or are children living or working on the streets.
“Sometimes, the torture is inflicted to extract confessions from the children,” Sheppard said. “While at other times it appears to be carried out purely for the entertainment of the official.”
Torture is prohibited under Nepal’s Constitution, but is not defined as a crime under the country’s civil code (Nepal’s criminal law is part of its civil code). The torture of children is, however, illegal under article 7 of the Children’s Act, though the maximum penalty is just one year’s imprisonment and a fine.
Human Rights Watch said that despite the widespread nature of abuses against children in police custody, no government official has ever been prosecuted for the torture of children under the Children’s Act.
“It’s unusual to find a country where torture has not at least been recognized as a crime in its basic criminal law,” Sheppard said. “Given the widespread and credible nature of the allegations of torture in police custody, and the fact that the Children’s Act allows the government to prosecute torturers of children, it is also surprising that not a single police officer has been prosecuted for this offense.”
Human Rights Watch also expressed concern about the conditions children face while in custody. Children are generally not separated from adults while in detention as required under international law, and thus face a greater risk of being assaulted by other prisoners. Children also lack access to adequate medical facilities and legal assistance, and some face long periods – sometimes many days – of arbitrary detention.
One first-person testimony obtained by Human Rights Watch came from a 15-year-old boy who was routinely abused over a period of four days by police officers from three different police stations in Sunsari District in January 2008. The boy, who was arrested on suspicion of being involved in a robbery, explained:
“As I denied their accusations, [two unidentified police personnel] started beating me with a green plastic pipe and a bamboo stick on my hands, legs, and all over my body. Then, they forced me to lie on the floor with my legs on the table and started beating me on my feet. While beating, they asked some questions such as ‘Who was involved in robbery?’ and ‘What are their names?’…. They tortured and interrogated me for about one hour.”
The next day, the same boy was transferred to a different police station, where he said he was again abused:
“Some five or six unidentified police personnel asked me the same questions as I had been asked the previous day. As soon as I stated that I was not involved in the robbery, they started beating me with a plastic pipe, a silver pipe, and a bamboo stick all over my body. They even punched and kicked me with their boots. After a while, they placed a pistol on my temple and threatened to shoot me dead in an encounter. Then, they forced me to admit my involvement in the robbery.... They forced me to lie on the floor and one police man put his legs with boots on my chest and another sat on my head and the next police officer started beating me on my feet, legs, and all over my body with sticks. Then, they forced me to jump up and down on the floor for seven to ten minutes and again started beating me. I was beaten and interrogated simultaneously [over a two-hour period].”
Forcing victims to jump up and down is a tactic often used in Nepal to get blood circulating with the intention of lessening the physical evidence of torture.
Human Rights Watch urged the Nepali government to mark Children’s Day by making a clear statement that police torture is absolutely prohibited, and that any police officer involved should be prosecuted to the full extent of the law.
“If the government takes children’s rights seriously, then it should use Children’s Day to condemn police torture of children and bring the perpetrators to justice,” Sheppard said. “Nepal’s government should commit that by next year’s Children’s Day; torture will be a criminal offence, punishable with a proportionate penalty.”


Juvenile justice system has not long history in our country. Children are always having/ facing conflict with law. So we need to develop a more and better law and policies for children not only in the constitution but also there should be proper implementation of it.

Juveline justice is one of the priority working area in nepal. Children are the vulnerable group of the society so the government should think about their protection and care. Government along with other organizations should conduct a training and orintation program throughout the country which will helps the people who are working in this field to understand the importance of juvenile justice.

As we have discussed above there is only a correctional home in Kathmandu so we need to establish a more correctional home in every district of the country to keep the children away from the environment of the police custody. There should be proper monitoring and evaluation of the different sub-sytems of the juvenile justice.

The government should prioritize the cases of juvenile so that we can draft a better juvenile justice policies (still we don’t have juvenile justice policiesin Nepal) in near future.



Nepal Demographic and Health Survey Report, 2006

Poudel.A, Protection of Rights of Children in Conflict with law, 2010. (for case study)
Field work summary on
Youth Setting
Youth Initiative

Submitted by:
Bikina Chhetri
3rd semester

Introduction of Organization:
Youth Initiative (YI) is a pioneer youth run and youth led initiative advocates and works for youth empowerment in order to involve them as agents of positive transformation in the society. Initiated in the late 1999 and formally registered with DAO Kathmandu and SWC in April 2001, YI has evolved as a model not for profit youth organization of its kind.
Youth initiative started out as a much felt-need of a platform for young people to voice their opinions and involve themselves in issues that concerns them. Youth Initiative strongly believes that “young people are not just the leaders of tomorrow, but are also partners of today.” With this in mind, YI has been providing an open platform for youths to develop to their fullest potential.
Youth Initiative today is a collage of ideas and efforts of numerous young people. To achieve its vision, Youth Initiative works in various issues using different tools and interventions; from raising awareness to policy advocacy; from organizing workshops to undertaking research; from life skills development to strengthening youth politics; etc.
Each when, Youth Initiative remains as a recognized youth organization at national and international level, it is run entirely by dedicated young members and individuals who mostly commit themselves as volunteers.

Youth Initiative envisions a situation where young people are involved, valued, respected and listened to, where they can exercise their civil liberties, and where they can develop to their fullest potential. Ultimately, the impact of Youth Initiative is to enhance the quality of life for all members of society.

Inform: To inform young people about the issues and affairs that concerns them through discussions, debates, dialogues, interactions, etc.
Empowers: To empower the young people to develop to their fullest potential, take part in decision making and exercise active citizenship through training, camps, capacity building, opportunities, etc.
Involves: To involve young people in all the stages of their own personal development and that of their communities through volunteering, civic engagements, advocacy, and project work, etc.

Youth Initiative:
• Believes that young people are not just leaders of tomorrow, they are also partners of today;
• Recognizes the power, potential and the role of youths, their creativity and innovativeness;
• Believes that with right tools, skills and guidance, young people themselves are best able to identify their issues, seek solutions and take appropriate actions;
• Confides in giving appropriate opportunities to young people to bring about positive transformation in our societies;
• Deems that enough investment should be made into young people today so that they can develop to their fullest potential and hence head towards responsible and self-sufficient adulthood;
• Advocates for appropriate policies for the development and engagement of youth in all spheres of their personal and community development;
• Encourages coordination, collaboration, networking and partnership for similar causes with organizations and networks at the national, regional or global level.

Programs/Activities of Organization:
Youth Discussion Series:
Youth Discussion Series is a weekly discussion program that aims to promote discussion, debate and dialogue among young people on various issues that confronts them. Organized every Friday from 3-5 pm at resource center of Youth Initiative.
Civic Concern Workshop:
Civic Concern is a one day workshop series that aims to assess youth concerns on civic life and state and share views and ideas to promote active citizenship and civic responsibilities. Organized First Saturday of every month.
Life Skills Camps:
Life Skills Camps is a 2-3 days residential camp which aims to develop life skills (leadership, communication, decision making, self awareness, empathy, etc) among young people. Organized 4-5 times a year.
Youth Seminar:
Five days residential Youth Seminar: “Towards a Free and Responsible Society” aims to inform youths on issues of freedom and responsibility and equips them with skills to take appropriate actions. Organized 4-5 times a year.
Youth Initiative Awards:
Every year in Youth Initiative award there will be 5 young leaders with an award amounting Rs 10,000 each to help fund their leadership, entrepreneurial or social development project.
Smart Club:
Smart Club is a weekly forum for the graduates of the Youth Seminar ‘Towards a Free and Responsible Society’ and Civic Concerns’ Workshop; and other interested youths to discuss and debate on contemporary civic, political and economic issues while enhancing their leadership capabilities through different tools like public speaking, moderation, facilitation among others.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs):
Youth Initiative has come up with a series of programs to sensitize, activate and promote engagement of young people on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the other role they can play in achieving these important goals through various means of communication, campaigns and small youth led initiatives and projects.
Between Us:
Youth Initiative’s effort in the fight against HIV and AIDS and addressing other reproductive health concerns of young people has been packaged in the program series Between Us. Between Us focuses on changing the mindset of young people towards HIV and AIDS from a mere medical issue to a broader social issue. With its varied nature and engaging programs like workshops, campaigns and other outreach activities young people are best involved in this cause.
Other programs:
Research and Publications, Moon Camp, Humanitarian Programs etc.

Funding organizations: DANIDA, Search for Common Ground and Asian Bank.

Introduction of the Trainee:
The trainee’s name is Ms. Bikina Chhetri. She is a student of BSW (Bachelor in Social work) 3rd semester. She is placed in Youth Initiative at Shantinagar which is a NGO working for youths. As the trainee is also a youth she felt the perception of youth and worked very properly with the group of youth who were the part of Youth Initiative.
The trainee as a social work student participated in different programs initiated by Youth Initiative, helped in organizing some programs and also initiated an orientation class on ‘Reproductive Health and Youth.’ The trainee helped to empower the youth from the program and also empowered herself.
As a social work student, the trainee applied the theoretical knowledge into practical which helped to contribute her learning and develop personally and professionally.

Objectives of the Trainee:
 To know about the organization.
 To know about the issues of youths.
 To know about on-going programs of the organization.
 To develop personally and professionally.
 To built the rapport with the staff members and with the youths.
 To participate in the program initiated by the organization.
 To initiate effective programs for youth.
 To visit different organizations, which is working for youths.
 To apply theoretical knowledge into practice.
 To work in collaboration with staffs and volunteers.

Activities of the trainee:
Activity no.1:
Organized a program on ‘Reproductive Health and Youth’
The trainee organized one day orientation class on ‘Reproductive Health and Youth.’ The trainee organized this program with collaboration with FPAN (Family Planning Association Nepal) and Youth Initiative. There were 18 participants altogether from different fields.
Objective of the activity:
1. To empower the youths through the knowledge of Reproductive Health.
2. To increase relation between FPAN and Youth Initiative.
3. To know about the issue of Sexual and Reproductive Health.
1. The trainee learned how to organize the program.
2. The trainee learned about the issue of Sexual and Reproductive Health.
3. The trainee learned about CSE (comprehensive Sexuality Education) and ‘HIV and AIDS.’
4. The trainee learned that youths are more vulnerable groups in society.

Activity no.2:
Participated on the workshop program on HIV and AIDS.
The trainee participated on the workshop program on HIV and AIDS organized by ‘Between Us’ (an ongoing program of Youth initiative) at ‘PIC Hall, Heritage Plaza, Putalisadak’ on 29th January 2009.
Objective of the activity:
1. To empower the youths through the knowledge of HIV and AIDS.
2. To develop personally.
3. To make interaction among the participants.
4. To make reflection with people living with HIV and AIDS and people of Blue Diamond Society.
1. The trainee learned about the impact of HIV and AIDS, the mode of transmission, the difference between HIV and AIDS.
2. The trainee learned about the life of the people who are HIV infected and the people who is known as transgender, homosexual and bisexual.
3. The trainee learned that HIV and AIDS can be termed as a social issue more than a health issue.
4. The trainee learned about policy, advocacy and youth.

Activity no.3:
Worked for promotion of concert organized by Youth Initiative:
The theme of the concert was ‘Youth against Violence’. The trainee worked for the promotion of the concert in which the trainee paste the posters of the concert and distributed flyers in different places like Baneswor, Anamnagar, Shantinagar, Chabahil and Putalisadak. The trainee also went to meet different celebrities like Dibya Subba, Bharat Sitawla, Sugarika K.C, Ramkumari Jhakri and Nirnaya to take their photos for the slideshow of the concert.
Objective of the activity:
1. To aware youth about the negative impact of violence.
2. Fund raising.
3. To suggest the youths to do the strike in a proper manner i.e. by not hampering the property of the state.
1. The trainee learned that youth are very much involved in violence.
2. The trainee learned that it is really very difficult to do promotion of concert.
3. The trainee learned that some youths are towards the violence and some are against the violence.
4. The trainee also learned that except some celebrities all of them were cooperative and friendly.

Activity no.4:
Participated in discussion series:
The trainee participated in Youth Discussion Series (YDS) in which there was discussion on different topics like tax, discrimination, politics, culture, Valentine’s Day and many more.
Objective of the activity:
1. To involve the youths.
2. To empower the youths by interaction with each other.
3. To make youths know about the contemporary issues in society.
1. The trainee learned about the different issues of society.
2. The trainee learned about the role of youths I each issue.

Summary of MUAN

Summary Recording

Bikina Chhetri
5th Semester


This is to acknowledge that this is the report regarding field work summary of Municipal Association of Nepal (MuAN). I Bikina Chhetri would like to thanks the entire staff member for cooperating in the agency and faculty advisor to give good guidance in the college. This summary recording contains the overall task done by the trainee and also the learning achieved by her.


1. About the Issue
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Laws and Regulation

2. About the Organization
2.1 Introduction of the Organization

2.2 Objectives of the Organization

2.3 Programs/Activities of the Organization

2.4 Organization Structure

2.5 Funding

3. About the Trainee
3.1 Introduction of the Trainee

3.2 Objectives of the Trainee

3.3 Activities of the Trainee

3.4 Overall Learning

3.5 Recommendation

3.6 Conclusion

1. About the Issue of the Organization:

1.1 Introduction:

UN-HABITAT recognizes that good urban governance is characterized by the interdependent principles of sustainability, equity, efficiency, transparency and accountability, security, civic engagement and citizenship. The agency's Global Campaign on Urban Governance aims to increase the capacity of local governments and other stakeholders to practice good urban governance, promote transparency, and fight crime and corruption. It also raises awareness and advocates good urban governance around the world and focuses attention on the needs of the excluded urban poor. It also promotes the involvement of women in decision-making at all levels, recognizing that women are crucial for positive change in society.
UN-HABITAT also develops indicators of good urban governance to help cities identify urban governance priorities and assess their progress towards the quality of city-life. Cities will be given tools to help them assess the state of urban governance in their city and then set targets for measuring performance. The agency aims to develop a global Good Urban Governance Index drawing on available urban indicators to assess the state of urban governance in the world. The results of the index are published in the UN-HABITAT State of the World's Cities report and the Global Report on Human Settlements.

Recently, 'good urban governance' has received currency along with other key words such as decentralization or local autonomy. Various local, national, regional and international organizations have undertaken considerable efforts to incorporate the tenets of good urban governance in realizing sustainability in cities, and meet the challenges of rapid urbanization and local environmental degradation. Good urban governance has been defined as an inclusive process in achieving a quality of life sought by the residents of cities; especially the disadvantaged, marginalized and poor.
The operational keywords of governance - and consequently its goals - have been applicability, equity, acceptability, and ownership of governance processes at the local level. This calls for the development of a framework or matrix within which cities and urban stakeholders can assess and prioritize governance indicators to measure urban governance performance. The many facets of good urban governance and its relevance to all aspects of city management and the delivery of urban goods and services calls for in-depth campaigns to educate and raise awareness on issues related to governance at all levels of a city or urban area, from a community to a region. These campaigns need to develop ownership of governance at the local level to ensure acceptability and effective implementation.

To build on existing and ongoing efforts to incorporate the tenets of good urban governance in aspects of city management (policies, programs, projects, and plans) requires action by all urban stakeholders and the development of a set of tools and resources, and for broad capacity building in good urban governance.
There is a need to facilitate the internalization of the concept of good urban governance, in order to build understanding and capacity at the local level, by developing a range of information and knowledge resources to assist us in these processes. Guidelines, checklists and benchmarks need to be developed that will guide in the application of good urban governance. Training sessions, short-term courses and on-the-job education need to be organized in order to ensure professional development of urban officials and of the general public they interact with and serve. Dialogues also need to be initiated amongst various local stakeholders on good urban governance
To achieve this, local governments will have to partner with other local authorities, training and research institutions, NGOs and community groups, private sector entities, national agencies and ministries, and UN agencies. Local and regional partners will have to be identified for this purpose, and develop appropriate governance resources and tools.
Focusing on broad involvement and inclusiveness in good urban governance, there is a need to educate and build awareness on the tenets of good governance, by developing a 'governance inventory' that will document and package information on good governance practices. This can be operationalized by developing a framework within which common indicators can be used to document best practices on good governance. Broad acceptance and ownership of the concepts and tents of governance need to be garnered, and the effective sharing and dissemination information on good governance practices. To achieve this, local governments will have to partner with a range of local and international organizations, including local authorities’ citizens groups, NGOs, and UN agencies - and formulate a common framework for good governance, along with a governance inventory.
Focusing on local action, multi-stakeholder coalitions will have to be built that monitor and evaluate actions towards good governance, and will advise and guide implementation. To do this, broad participation and partnership among all local stakeholders in the development of good urban governance will have to be ensured at the local level. Efforts towards institutional and administrative reform will have to be initiated, and is widely accepted and implemented. Action for networking and resource sharing will have to be taken so that the intended impacts of good governance are achieved.
Finally, mechanisms for third-party auditing and evaluation of programs and actions will have to be put into place. To achieve this, local governments will have to partner with NGOs and citizens groups, with other cities in the country and region, and with private sector entities. A set of monitoring and evaluation tools will have to be developed to guide implementation, and to identify appropriate partners and resources that can assist in these processes.
1.2 Laws and Regulation:
According to Municipal Association of Nepal’s constitution 2054 B.S. there are certain rules and regulation which goes on like this:
The objectives of the association will be:
• To make networking of the municipalities and do sharing of experience;
• To give needed and formal information and suggestion to HMG and Ministry for the welfare of municipalities;
• To find out different ideas of increasing the resources of municipalities for giving services to the citizen;
• To know about the problems of municipalities and find appropriate solution for it;
• To give suggestion, information and needed services to the member municipalities;
• To solve the environmental problem faced by municipalities and cities;
• To create relation, help and rapport with the International Organization working with same objectives.
According to article (1) the association will be active for acquiring these objectives.

For Associating Association
Accepting this constitution and fulfilling the demand of the association any municipalities can be the member of the association. For doing the daily work of the association there will be a working committee in which there will be participation of woman, indigenous people and other vulnerable groups also.
There will be formal meeting of association for making the plans, policies, programs and giving advice to the working committee of the association. The working committee will work according to the advice in the name of association.
The association will be the high post organization. It will have its own stamp for all work and the stamp will be according to decision of working committee. The association can acquire and can sell its property. The central office of the association will be at Kathmandu.
For the membership the membership will be abolished if they don’t pay the membership fee, if they don’t follow the rules regarding association and according to article (1) if the person own self leave the membership.

For Formal Meeting
The formal meeting will be regard as the association’s formal meeting and there will be participation of members of the association. This meeting will do needed work for obtaining the objectives by following the rules and regulation of the constitution. It will also help in increasing and maintaining the relation and help between municipalities for organizational development.
The meeting will help in make decision on maintain the policies, programs and budget. It will also help in knowing the problems of municipalities and for the solution taking suggestion from the HMG. The proposed yearly report and economic report by the working committee will be discussed in the meeting.
For the development of municipalities there will be done study on different issues. A legal expert will be appointed. There will be decision on the services given to president, vice- president, secretary, treasures and members. The working committee will be given appropriate suggestion and guidance.

For Working Committee
There will be a working committee of the association who will work to fulfill the objectives of the association following the constitution of the association. They have to work according to the decision made in formal meeting and should show the policies, programs and budget in front of formal meeting. The working committee can appoint maximum 7 renowned people as the advisor of the association for obtaining the objective.
The meeting of working committee will minimum 4 times a year and it will be guided by the president of association only. At the meeting if there is 50% of working committee in total also then it will be regard as the full participation and the decision will be made by maximum participation.
The working committee will be given certain roles, responsibilities and rights which will be mentioned in the constitution only and they have to work according to it and make decision and will be provided the services according to it.
The information regarding the working committee meeting should be given before 15 days. The working committee can decide the other working pattern regarding the meeting. The working committee can do follow up of the work and give suggestion and decide the activities to be performed at the association to fulfill the objectives.


2.1 Introduction of the Organization:

Municipal Association of Nepal (MuAN) was established in the year 1994 and at the beginning of 1998, MuAN reconstituted itself and became a registered institution under National Directive Act,1961(2018 B.S.). All 58 municipalities (1 Metropolitan City, 4 Sub Metropolitan Cities and 53 Municipalities) of Nepal are members of MuAN.

Since 1992, concrete efforts were initiated to establish association of municipalities. This was further accelerated through gathering of all the Mayors and Deputy Mayors in 1993 in Pokhara and 1994 in Banepa. In 1995, legislative assembly approved the constitution and formalized MuAN as an apex body of all the municipalities of Nepal. General assemblies were held in 1996,1997,1999,2000 and 2001 in Mahendranagar, Hetauda, Dharan, Siddharthanagar and Pokhara respectively.


• “Making cities autonomous, prosperous and self-reliant”


• Promoting urban governance by ensuring rights and enhancing capabilities of municipal government to make cities autonomous, prosperous and self reliant.


MuAN’s main objective is to promote sustainable urban growth and decentralized good governance in its member municipalities, and at the same time facilitates the central government in policy and legal reform issues. The main objectives of MuAN are:

• To lobby and advocate for guaranteeing autonomous local/municipal government in the new constitution.
• To develop MuAN as a pioneer institution for the promotion of urban governance by coordinating municipal governments and relevant stakeholders.
• To develop municipal governments as a capable and strong institution to provide urban services effectively.
• To make municipal government transparent, responsive, accountable and inclusive for ensuring the urban good governance.
• To develop MuAN as a common platform for enhancing leadership information.
2.3 Activities of the Organization:

Advocacy and Lobbying
MuAN takes a lead in safeguarding municipal interests and needs for overall development of cities and towns. Policy formulation including acts, regulations and by-laws regarding municipal government is the main concern of MuAN’s advocacy role. For this, the process entails the participation of central government, donor agencies, and other stakeholders involved in urban development in Nepal. MuAN represents all the municipalities at the national and international level, as well as in various organizations and forums.

Technical and Advisory Support
To develop and strengthen the organizational capability municipalities, MuAN seeks internal and external financial sources and technical know-how in the areas of resource mobilization. MuAN counsels and informs member municipalities on all proceedings and developments relevant to local self-government.

Resource Mobilization
MuAN plays facilitative and coordinating role for resource mobilization of members through participatory municipal planning process. MuAN assists to initiate Local Economic Development (LED) activities for urban development. Small medium micro enterprises sector promotion; rural-urban linkages, private sector participation, urban banking and intra-municipality development support are the key areas for the LED initiatives.

Human Resource Development
MuAN arranges, provides, facilitates, and coordinates training in the areas of urban development and municipal governance. Training programs on different urban disciplines are conducted for the elected office bearers and staff of member municipalities. Workshops and seminars on urban issues are the continuous features for exchange of knowledge among member municipalities.

Information and Networking
MuAN through its Urban Resource Center (URC) explores and disseminates the latest information and best practices on urban development and local governance. For this, a wide and effective international networking with donors and urban resource centers is established. MuAN provides a pool of experiences among member municipalities and exchange of information on various topics through its website, quarterly journal, reports, brochures, etc.

2.5 Funding:

MuAN is a member-funded association. The member municipalities are categorized for membership fee according to their municipal income. Other sources of funding are grants and donations from different organizations and agencies like United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG), CITYNET, UDLE and DED.



The trainee is a fifth semester student of Social Work and as she was acquainted with the practice of Rural and Urban Community Development as a three credit course in the fourth semester, she was placed in Municipal Association of Nepal (MuAN), as the organization works for better urban governance and rural-urban linkage. The trainee was enrolled in the organization after a detailed interview about her skills and experiences and was allotted the tasks as per her ability and capacity and work on various issues of concern.

The trainee as a social worker worked effectively in the organization and gained more knowledge about different issues. She also participated in different programs initiated by MuAN and helped in increasing the knowledge on urban governance.

She worked in the group and always believed in team work. She was dedicated to each and every thing she does and was always ready to learn new things. She got opportunity to take parts in ongoing programmes of the organization.

As a student of social work, the trainee applied the theoretical knowledge into practical which helped to contribute her learning and develop professionally and personally.


• To learn about the organization

• To learn about the macro social work setting

• To learn about the issue

• To built the rapport with the staff members.

• To help the organization run, with its activities

• To relate theory into practice

• To participate in different programs initiated by the organization.
• To develop personally and professionally.

3.3 Activities Performed by the Trainee:

Activity no.1
Participated in SWASTHA Project Workshop:

The trainee participated in the workshop which was organized by MuAN and supported by different other national, international and governmental organization like ENPHO, UN-HABITAT, European Union, Practical Action and Ministry of Local Development. In this workshop the trainee managed all the materials before the workshop started, then did reporting of the program and also participated in discussion series and group work.

Objectives of the Activity:

• To know about the SWASTHA project;

• To do rapport building.


• The trainee learned that the main objective of SWASTHA project is to contribute to sustainable improvement in health and well being of vulnerable population especially women and children residing in urban and peri-urban settlements.

• The trainee learned about Participatory Water and Sanitation plan and how it is going to work in Butwal Municipality.

• The trainee learned that there is about 2 arab reserve fund and about 1 arab 33 crore goes for the municipalities and there are some criteria for accesing the reserve fund for each municipality.

• The municipalities are also interested in working in water sector for increasing water supply and improving water quality.

• Moreover the trainee also learned hoe to organize a workshop and manage time.

Activity no.2
Participated in National Conference:

The trainee participated in the national conference on the topic of ‘Role of Local Autonomous Government in New Constitution.’ The trainee analyzed and participated in the conference and also interacted with the candidates of the constitution.

Objectives of the Activity:

• To know about the different issue that is going to be constitute in the new constitution;
• To know about the role of the government in making new constitution;
• To build rapport.


• The trainee learned that the new constitution has highlighted 10 things and they are social and cultural aspects; nation welfare, executive organ, vulnerable groups, justice system, fundamental rights, resource distribution and employment opportunities;

• The trainee learned that in fundamental rights the right to vote and right to concise plays a greater role in every country ;

• The trainee also learned that how can be the new constitution be accountable for everyone.

• The trainee also learned that most of the candidates of constitution are not so serious in this matter while some were very active and dedicated.

Activity no.3
Media Analysis:

The trainee did media analysis. She read the news and articles from the magazines, newspaper and internet about municipalities and urban issues. After doing it the trainee also made the report of media analysis and submitted it to the organization.

Objectives of the Activity:

• To know about the issue of urban area and municipalities;
• To do comparative study of different activities done by different municipalities;
• To analyze the different elements affecting municipalities and urban area.


• The trainee learned about the different issues of municipalities like waste management, water management, road construction and more.

• The trainee learned that the different municipalities are doing different work according to need of people and some municipalities are doing very effective task while some are lagging behind.

• The trainee learned different elements like strike, protest and all from the political parties and other parties are affecting the work of municipalities and also the urban areas.

Activity no.4
Arranged the Resource Center:

The trainee arranged the books, journals and reports of the resource centre. She did the entry of around 100 books of the organization and arranged it properly. Then she arranged all the books according to the number and issue and also differentiated the mixed books and arranged it according to the issue.

Objectives of the Activity:

• To know about the different literature related to urban issue;
• To learn about management of resource centre.


• The trainee learned that there are books, journals and reports regarding urban management, urban development and planning, urban finance, community development, organizational development and more.

• The trainee learned about the tools and techniques of managing resource centre.

• The trainee learned that maximum journals and reports were very old and were not of any use.

Activity no.5
Gender analysis:

The trainee did gender analysis on the ratio of the staff working in the organization. She just analyzed it before the vacancy announcement on the post of Program Officer and Finance Officer and after selecting two people for the post.

Objectives of the Activity:

• To analyzed the situation of low participation of women in the organization;

• To make appropriate recommendations for organization for addressing such situation.


• The trainee learned that there is very low participation of women in comparison to men at the organization;

• The trainee learned that the organization has addressed the situation and has appointed a female candidate on the post of program officer.

• The trainee learned that now there are women and men are of 40% and 60% respectively at the organization.

Activity no.6
Handled Office Procedures:

The trainee handled different office procedures. She did photocopy of different reading materials, news and articles published in newspapers and magazines. She also did letter writing and did typing and also worked on behalf of the staffs and handled their task and made reports.

Objectives of the Activity:

• To know about the resources of the office;

• To learn about handling office procedures.


• The trainee learned that the organization has got every needed resource like computers, printers, photocopy machine, inverter and telephones which is an essential resource of office.

• The trainee learned to use those resources and also learned its importance at the office level.

Activity no.7
Learned about communication strategies of the organization

The trainee learned about communication strategy of the organization. She asked the staff members of the organization to give information about the communication strategy and Ms. Poornima Shakya provided the trainee the detail information about it.

Objectives of the Activity:

• To learn about the communication strategy of the organization;

• To know about the roles of staff members in communication strategy.


• The trainee learned that the executive board is responsible for the communication policy of MuAN.

• Networking Associate are responsible for regular communication and coordination with the municipalities and to provide factual information on events and programs.

Other Activities of the Trainee are:

• Edited articles for magazine published by MuAN called Voice of Cities.
• Analyzed the profile of different municipalities.
• Interacted with the visitors and the staffs of the organization.
• Helped in arranging materials.
• Analysis on the activities of the organization.
• Literature Review.
• Participated in informal meetings.
• Internet Surfing.
• Arranged the store.
• Wrote summary of the training programs.
• Newspaper cutting.

Overall learning:

Professional learning:

Professionally trainee got chance to learn many things and acquire many skills which are important and essential for a social worker to perform their effective programs. The trainee learned how to organize different programs, to interact with the people, to perceive the ideas of others, to handle the office procedures, to use the resources properly, to deal with different types of people, to manage the resource centre, to do media analysis and write official reports.

In all these the trainee learned about the different issues of urban governance, urbanization, constitution and the peoples’ perception in this issue. The trainee acquired listening skills, speaking skills, interaction skills and observing skills.

Personal learning:

The trainee learned that urban issue is a concerned topic for everyone. Urbanization has grown up so rapidly. There are lots of urban issue like waste management, unmanaged housing, slums area and more which is creating lots of problems in urban area. The developing countries are very much lagging behind for the urban development.

Municipalities and other organization working with same issue are doing different urban development programs like road construction, waste management, water management and more which is somehow creating some influence in urban management.


The trainee would like to recommend that the trainee should be given those tasks from which she can learn properly. The trainee should get opportunity to visit the fields and also should be involved in different activities of the organization. The trainee should be informed about the different programs initiated by the organization and should help the trainee to learn more about the organization and the issues of the organization.

With the name and fame it has gained in national and the international level, the organization can still do more work. That contribution could further help in the development of the other communities in the society. The organization is not working totally by maximum interaction and sharing of opportunities with the lower level staffs by which there has occurred a sense of dissatisfaction among the staffs. This should be countered in time with adequate remuneration and opportunities.


The trainee has got the opportunity to learn about different setting like MuAN which mainly focuses on the urban issue and constitution. She got the platform to know about different issues of urban places and urban governance.

She got the chance to interact and communicate with many talented and knowledgeable people. She mainly developed the idea of analysis and observation which has helped her to develop personally and professionally.

The trainee likes to thanks Ms. Prerana Shakya of MuAN for giving the opportunity in this field and guiding us properly and all the staff members for coping and supporting.

The friendly environment and proper guidance of the field supervisor has helped the trainee to apply her theoretical knowledge into practice and take proper action in the field.

The trainee also likes to thanks Mrs. Samjhana Bhetwal, the faculty advisor for supporting and encouraging the trainee. She always has given proper guidance.

Time Table:

Week Date Total Hours of the Week
1st week 2nd November-6th November, 2009 38
2nd week 16th November- 20th November,2009 27
3rd week 30th November- 4th December, 2009 31
4th week 11th January- 14th January,2010 26
5th week 27th January- 29th January, 2010 21
6th week 22nd March-26th March, 2010 30
7th week 5th April- 8th April & 15th April,2010 42
8th week 19th April- 22nd April 30
Total no. of hours 245

Saturday, August 21, 2010

Summary of SOLID Nepal

Submitted by:
Bikina Chhetri
4th Semester

This is to acknowledge that this is the report regarding field work summary of SOLID Nepal. I Bikina Chhetri would like to thanks the entire staff member for cooperating in the agency and faculty advisor to give good guidance in the college. This summary recording contains the overall task done by the trainee and also the learning achieved by her.

Introduction of the Organization:
Society for Local Integrated Development Nepal (SOLID Nepal), a non- governmental, apolitical and non- profit making organization, established in 1997, has been working in the field of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Non- communicable Diseases. It works through research, publications, advocacy, training and social mobilization in a holistic manner.
It visions to attain a healthy and productive life of all individuals, especially who are poor, vulnerable, deprived and socially excluded. Its mission is to make available comprehensive health and development programmes at all levels especially targeted to young people with their full participation.
Its main goal is to integrate health and developments programmes into different sectors of the societies and empower people to participate in all steps of program spiral.

Introduction of the Trainee:
The trainee’s name is Ms. Bikina Chhetri. She is a student of BSW (Bachelor in Social Work) 4th semester. She was placed in SOLID Nepal at Satdobato, Lalitpur which is a NGO working on reproductive health and non- Communicable Diseases. The trainee was really very interested to know more about reproductive health and non- communicable diseases so she found SOLID Nepal as the platform which helped her to know about reproductive health and non- communicable diseases and the perception of people regarding these issues.
The trainee as a social worker worked effectively in the organization and gained more knowledge about different issues. She also participated in different programs initiated by SOLID Nepal, organized some programs and helped in increasing the knowledge on reproductive health of youths.
She worked in the group and always believed in team work. She was dedicated to each and every thing she does and was always ready to learn new things. She got opportunity to take parts in training classes and give comments to the ongoing programmes of the organization.
As a student of social work, the trainee applied the theoretical knowledge into practical which helped to contribute her learning and develop professionally and personally.

Objectives of the trainee:
• To know about the organization.
• To know about the issue of the organization.
• To know about on- going programs of the organization.
• To built the rapport with the staff members.
• To participate in different programs initiated by the organization.
• To initiate effective programs for youth on Reproductive Health.
• To visit the organization working on Reproductive Health.
• To work in collaboration with staffs and volunteers.
• To apply theoretical knowledge into practice.
• To develop personally and professionally.

Activities of the trainee:
Activity no: 1
Organized a school level orientation class:
The trainee organized one day orientation class on ‘Comprehensive Sexuality Education’. The trainee worked in collaboration with the trainees of FPAN (Family Planning Association Nepal). The students in class 10 of ‘Pharping Higher Secondary School’ were oriented. There were altogether 30 student in the class. The trainee made them play games associated with the topic and also asked them to write the problems regarding their reproductive and sexual health.
Objectives of the activity:
• To create awareness on Comprehensive Sexuality Education;
• To know about the different components regarding the topic;
• To analyze different problems youths are facing regarding their reproductive and sexual health.

• The trainee learned how to organize the orientation class.
• The trainee learned to deal with the teenager youths.
• The trainee herself learned more about the ‘Comprehensive Sexuality Education’.
• The trainee learned about different problems of youths regarding sexual and reproductive health.

Activity no: 2
Data Collection for the Research:
The trainee collected data for the research on Ayurvedic Services. The trainee went to different Ayurvedic hospitals and clinics to collect the data. The data were collected through interview method by asking questions about their personal information, doctor- patient relationships, about the quality of Ayurvedic medicine and health services.
Objectives of the activity:
• To know about the perception of the patient regarding Ayurvedic services;
• To do comparative study of different Ayurvedic hospitals and clinics.
• The trainee learned that different patient has different perception regarding Ayurvedic services.
• The trainee learned that in some Ayurvedic clinics the services were really good while in others it was not so good.
• The trainee learned that in most of the Ayurvedic clinic there was lack of infrastructure.
• The medicine provided by one clinic differs with other clinic.

Activity no: 3
Done FGD (Focus Group Discussion):
The trainee did focus group discussion as the facilitator with the youths of YIC (Youth Information Center) in Bhadrabas which is near to Gokarna. The trainee facilitated three groups. The first group was of boys and girls, the second group was of girls only and the third group was of boys only. FGD was done with these groups in different time. In all groups there were altogether 8 people. In this the trainee asked the question and they told the answer whatever they know about the issue.
Objectives of the activity:
• To access the knowledge of adolescents about normal physiological changes in the body;
• To access the knowledge about pregnancy, premarital sex and contraception;
• To access the knowledge of adolescents on sexuality and sex education;
• To access the knowledge of adolescents about STD/HIV/Aids;
• To access the ideas on the kind of services they would like to have in a youth friendly clinic.
• The trainee learned that the youths were really very curious to learn about the sexual and reproductive health from each other.
• The trainee learned that some youths have misconception regarding some issues.
• The trainee learned that almost all of them have been exposed to sex education either directly or indirectly.
• The trainee learned only few of them have visited health clinic to receive sexual and reproductive health services.

Activity no: 4
Wrote article:
The trainee wrote an article in which she wrote about her first experience and social behavior during menstruation period. After that it was edited by Mr. Chetnath Sir which gave a new look to the article. The article has been published in 25th series of Youvan magazine in Bhadra 2066.
Objectives of the activity:
• To create awareness regarding social behavior during the menstruation period.
• To share the experience and the problems faced during menstruation period.
• The trainee learned that almost everyone liked the article.
• The trainee learned how to write a good article regarding any matter.

Activity no: 5
Attended workshop:
The trainee attended the workshop organized by FPAN in the cause of ‘Celebrating the Passing of Domestic Violence Bill-2066’ and ‘Comprehensive Sexuality Education.’ People from governments, parliaments, journalism, organizations and youth volunteers were participated on the workshop. The presentation on the ‘condition of the adolescents’ reproductive and sexual health’ was presented on the workshop. The speech was given by Mrs. Sapana Malla and Dr. Arju Rana Deuba on the topic.
Objectives of the activity:
• To know about the domestic violence bill that is going to pass by the government.
• To find the role of parliamentarians and government officer in passing the bill.
• To know about the condition of the adolescent’s reproductive and sexual health in Nepal.
• To know about ‘Comprehensive Sexuality Education.’
• The trainee learned about the gaps in implementation of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health strategy.
• The trainee learned about the meaning of puberty age and sexuality.
• The trainee learned about the awareness level of adolescent in the case of sexual and reproductive health.

Activity no: 6
Library maintenance:
The trainee maintained the library by arranging the books of the library according to its number and issues. The trainee also did numbering on the books and journals and arranged it properly.
Objectives of the activity:
• To know about the different literature related to health.
• To arrange the library properly.
• The trainee learned about different health issues including reproductive and sexual health.
• The trainee learned about managing the library and arrangement of books in the library.

Activity no: 7
Participated in World Population Day:
The trainee participated on the World Population Day in which the trainee did walkathon from Babarmahal to Jawlakhel ground, and then placed the stall representing SOLID Nepal.
Objectives of the activity:
• To find out different programs in world population day;
• To highlight Youvan magazine issues;
• To create awareness about correct age of marriage and its positive impact.
• The trainee learned the actual information of World Population Day was not flowing properly.
• The trainee also learned that people are not much interested to know about the reproductive and sexual health which directly and indirectly influences the population of the country.
• The trainee overall learned about the different issues of different organization participated on the program.
Activity no: 8
Media Analysis:
The trainee read the news from the magazines, newspaper and internet about reproductive and sexual health in which there were information about safe motherhood, pregnancies, HIV and Aids, STI and many more.
Objectives of the activity:
• To know about the issue of reproductive and sexual health in media;
• To do comparative study of different country regarding the condition of sexual and reproductive health;
• To analyze the different elements affecting reproductive and sexual health.
• The trainee learned that the condition of reproductive and sexual health is different in developed country and developing country.
• The trainee learned different issue like safe delivery, masturbation, abortion etc which represents sexual and reproductive health.

Other activities:
• Data entry of Ayurvedic research.
• Literature review.
• Visited organization working in reproductive and sexual health.
• Interaction with volunteers and staffs.
• Attended training class of the organization.
• Wrote official reports.
• Discussion on different issues.
• Attended meetings.

Theory applied:
The trainee applied the theoretical knowledge properly in this semester. The trainee stayed within the limitations and enjoyed the authority given by the organization. She worked with her co- trainee as a group and experienced ‘we’ feeling within the group. She found out the importance of reproductive and sexual health in each persons life and tried to gain more information and knowledge regarding it.
The trainee used the principle of confidentiality, non-judgmental attitude and respected view of everyone working as staffs and volunteers in the organization. The trainee got different ideas related to sexual and reproductive by listening properly in workshops and training programs.
The trainee gave equal participation in planning and discussion and also contributed her ideas in the organization. The theory of mobilization of local tools and resources was properly applied by the trainee.

Strength and Weakness of the trainee:
• The trainee was unable to finish the overall data entry of Ayurvedic research.
• The trainee sometime used to be late in the organization.
• The trainee was unable to go the field visit to different places as it was far.
• The trainee was punctual.
• The trainee respected other views.
• The trainee was friendly with the staffs and volunteers.
• The trainee was very dedicated to any task.
• The trainee maintained good relation with everyone.
• The trainee was active listener, speaker and writer.
• The trainee worked properly on the task given by the field supervisor.

Critical Analysis:
The organization is doing effective works on reproductive and sexual health, but it lacks something that is it is not able to organize some programs for youths like youth conference or youth seminar. Overall the organization is doing great work as it is spreading the knowledge of reproductive and sexual health. It is helping the youth to empower by giving information through different training programs and ‘Youvan Magazines.’

The trainee would like to recommend that the trainee should be given those tasks from which she can learn properly. The trainee should get opportunity to visit the fields and also should be involved in different activities of the organization.
The organization should provide with an identity card so that other can easily know that they are the trainee and has specific purpose in the organization.

Overall learning:
Professional learning:
Professionally trainee got chance to learn many things and acquire many skills which are important and essential for a social worker to perform their effective programs. The trainee learned how to organize different programs, to interact with the people, to perceive the ideas of others, to handle the office procedures, to use the resources properly, to deal with different types of people, to manage the library, to do media analysis and write official reports.
In all these the trainee learned about the different issues of reproductive and sexual health and the peoples’ perception in this issue. The trainee acquired listening skills, speaking skills, interaction skills and observing skills.
Personal learning:
The trainee learned that reproductive and sexual health is a vital part of each and everyone’s life so the information on this issue should be given to everyone. The one without proper information in this issue cannot lead a healthy life as it is must for everyone.
The comprehensive sexuality education should be compulsory in each school so that the youths can get proper information in this issue and can empower themselves.

The trainee got a platform to work on the issue of reproductive and sexual health and Non- Communicable diseases. The trainee concludes that she got a chance to participate actively and increase professional and personal development.
The trainee likes to thanks Mr.Ramkrishna Parajuli of SOLID Nepal for giving the opportunity in this field and guiding us properly. All the staffs members and volunteers to cope with us and supporting us. The friendly environment and proper guidance of the field supervisor has helped the trainee to apply her theoretical knowledge into practice and take proper action in the field.
The trainee also likes to thanks Mrs. Noma Rayamajhi, the faculty advisor to support and encourage the trainee. She always has given proper guidance.
Last but not the least the trainee would like to thanks the co-trainee Mr.Sangeet Gopal Kayastha for always being there and giving support in the field.

Week Date Total Hours of the Week
1st week 31st March-4th April,2009 35.5
2nd week 15th April,17th April,2009 15
3rd week 8th June-11th June,2009 39
4th week 22nd June-26th June,2009 41
5th week 6th July-11th July,2009 46
6th week 21st July-23rd July,2009 23
7th week 3rd August-4th Augus 7th 2009 22
8th week 17th August-21st August,2009 32
Total no. of hours 253.5 hours